Best CBD oils available in the UK - Click Here!

The Medical Benefits of CBD: Reviewing the Literature

the medical benefits of cbd oil

 

CBD oil has been legal for medicinal purposes in the UK since 2016, and since November 2018, medical marijuana has been legalised for use under specific circumstances. The NHS has even released a guide to the use of Medical Cannabis. Over in America, Medical Marijuana is legal in 33 states and 5 territories, and CBD is legal in fourteen more. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) currently recognizes medicinal C. sativa as an effective treatment for providing relief in a number of symptoms associated with cancer, including pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety.


Despite this huge progression in medical institutions embracing the use of CBD and medical cannabis, there's a lot of confusion about what is and isn't true, so we’ve researched the peer reviewed, medical studies that have been carried out in recent years to bring you a guide to the literature on CBD oil. We’ve provided links to each of the studies we’re referencing, alongside a further reading section after each guide and an extensive bibliography of medical research at the end.


This guide is broken into three sections of treatment that peer reviewed medical studies have actually shown CBD to be highly effective for: pain management, complex motor disorders and mental health. 

CONTENTS 
  • Pain Management

    • including topical pain, and pain associated with cancer and arthritis.
    • Complex Motor Disorders

      • including epilepsy, spasticity and dystonia, and dravet syndrome.
      • Mental Health

        • Including dementia, cannabis, tobacco and opioid dependence, psychoses/schizophrenia, general social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson’s disease and Tourette's disorder.

      • CBD in particular has large medical benefits with a statistically low experience of negative side effects by users. This peer reviewed study showed that “CBD can counteract the undesirable effects of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) that hinder clinical development of cannabis-based therapies” as “CBD blunts Δ9-THC-induced cognitive impairment in an adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dependent manner.” Many critics of CBD conflate studies illustrating the negative impact of THC as studies criticising CBD. In actual fact, CBD is shown to limit the exact cognitive issues these critics are concerned with. Using CBD is different to smoking weed and has many beneficial effects on mental and physical health.

         

        CBD oil and pain management

        CBD and Pain Management

        CBD and Cancer

        This 2017 review of literature published on Medline between 1975 and 2017 identified five clinical studies that evaluated the effect of THC or CBD on controlling cancer pain and found evidence suggesting that medical cannabis reduces chronic or neuropathic pain in advanced cancer patients. This 2014 thorough review has over 151 citations that outline the potential benefits of cannabis for treating cancer-related symptoms, its role in fighting cancer, and potential dangers of cannabis usage.

        CBD and Medical Marijuana has many other benefits for patients with cancer. Preclinical studies carried out in vitro (done on molecules or cells in a test tube) and in vivo (done on living subjects or cells) suggest that cannabinoids may also have anticancer activity, as they can be used to modulate tumor growth. This finding has been confirmed in studies of aggressive breast cancer, such as this one. Preclinical research like this also indicates that cannabinoids, including CBD, may be effective clinically for treating both nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy or other therapeutic treatments. The same has been found in a study of THC, where vomiting was completely prevented in a test group of children with hematologic cancers - and the side effects observed were negligible.

        CBD and Arthritis

        CBD has been widely accepted by the scientific community for the treatment of arthritis, following an extensive clinical study into the treatment of murine (rodent) arthritis with CBD. Similar results have been found in later studies, such as this one from 2014, which was also then analysed by the NHS.  

        CBD doesn't just help people. Tests have shown improved quality of life in non human subjects too- for example this study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with osteoarthritis.

        CBD and Topical Pain

        A 2017 medical study published in the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management found that medical cannabis provided effective topical pain management, and could even limit the use of opioids, which have a very high side effect profile.

        Systemically administered opioids are the mainstay of treatment, despite the fact that opioids cause the inhibition of wound healing, and are associated with accidental overdose which is frequently fatal. In the past decade the number of Americans killed by overdose has more than doubled. More than 70,200 Americans died from drug overdoses in 2017, of these deaths 47,600 were the result of opioids. As of 2019, “there are no documented deaths due to acute cannabis toxicity”- the major contributor to associated mortality is accidents. Replacing and reducing dependency on opioids would dramatically reduce the impact of the opioid epidemic.

         

        CBD and Cancer Further Reading:

        • Blake, Alexia, Bo Angela Wan, Leila Malek, Carlo DeAngelis, Patrick Diaz, Nicholas Lao, Edward Chow, & Shannon O’Hearn. "A selective review of medical cannabis in cancer pain management." Annals of Palliative Medicine [Online], 6.2 (2017): S215-S222. Web. 6 Feb. 2019
        • Dariš B, Tancer Verboten M, Knez Željko, Ferk P. “Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation.” BJBMS. 2 Sep.2018 [cited 6 Feb.2019];. Available free from: http://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/3532
        • Elbaz Mohamad, Nasser Mohd W., Ravi Janani, Wani Nissar A., Ahirwar Dinesh K., Zhao Helong, OghumuSteve, Satoskar Abhay R., Shilo Konstantin, Carson William E., Ganju Ramesh K.,  “Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer”, Molecular Oncology 9,(2015), doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2014.12.010.
        • Kramer, J. L. (2015), “Medical marijuana for cancer.” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65: 109-122. doi:10.3322/caac.21260
        • Steele, G., Arneson, T. & Zylla, D. Curr “A Comprehensive Review of Cannabis in Patients with Cancer: Availability in the USA, General Efficacy, and Safety.” Oncol Rep (2019) 21: 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-019-0757-7

         

        CBD and Arthritis Further Reading:

        • Burston JJ, Sagar DR, Shao P, Bai M, King E, et al. “Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Regulate Central Sensitization and Pain Responses Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint”  (2013) 8(11): e80440. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080440
        • Gamble Lauri-Jo, Boesch Jordyn M., Frye Christopher W., Schwark Wayne S., Mann Sabine, Wolfe Lisa, Brown Holly, Berthelsen Erin S., Wakshlag Joseph J. “Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs”, Frontiers in Veterinary Science. VOL. 5 . 2018 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffvets.2018.00165
        •  Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, et al. “The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000;97(17):9561-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.160105897

         

        CBD oil and complex motor disorders

        CBD and Complex Motor Disorders

        CBD aids in the management of a large variety of motor disorders due to its muscle relaxing properties. This application of CBD has been researched for over 40 years. Many studies done in the 70s were on non human models, such as papio papio Baboons, but more and more researched is available on the effects of CBD in humans, and particularly children with motor disorders. In 1980, Cunha et al. reported anticonvulsant benefits in 7 out of 8 subjects with medically uncontrolled epilepsy using marijuana extracts in a phase I clinical trial. Since then, neurological applications have been a major focus of renewed research for the use of medical marijuana and CBD extracts.

        In the past year alone multiple studies have been published researching the use of CBD for epileptic seizure management. For example, this observational, longitudinal study into the use of CBD-enriched medical cannabis for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents found that 56% of participants had ≤50% reduction in mean monthly seizure frequency. Another 2018 study published in Epilepsy & Behaviour found that the addition of CBD resulted in 39% of patients having a >50% reduction in seizures, with 10% becoming seizure-free. In yet another study, after a 5 month course of CBD treatment, significant improvement in; spasticity and dystonia, sleep difficulties, pain severity, and quality of life was found in children with moderate to severe Complex Motor Disorders.

        A rare but particularly catastrophic form of epilepsy is Dravet Syndrome. Treatment is currently incredibly limited and patients with Dravet Syndrome face a 15-20% mortality rate due to SUDEP (Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy), prolonged seizures, seizure-related accidents such as drowning, and infections. A prospective open-label trial of a CBD/THC cannabis oil in treating Dravet Syndrome found the substance to be “safe and well tolerated in our subjects.” Not only this, but “treatment resulted in a reduction in seizure counts, spike index on EEG, and improved quality of life measures.”

        CBD has also been found to be effective in treating the muscle spasms associated with Multiple Sclerosis and preliminary studies also show CBD to be a promising avenue for the treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Survivors of TBI are at risk for lowered life expectancy, dying at a 3⋅2 times more rapid rate than the general population, and often go untreated.

         

        CBD And Complex Motor Disorders Further Reading:

        • Aya Abrahamov, Avraham Abrahamov, R. Mechoulam, “An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology,” Life Sciences, Volume 56, Issues 23–24,1995,Pages 2097-2102, https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(95)00194-B
        • Baguley, I. J., Nott, M. T., Howle, A. A., Simpson, G. K., Browne, S., King, A. C., et al. (2012). “Late mortality after severe traumatic brain injury in New South Wales: a multicentre study.” Med. J. Aust. 196, 40–45. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja11.10090
        • Crippa, J.A.S., Hallak, J.E.C., Zuardi, A.W. et al. Eur Arch “Is cannabidiol the ideal drug to treat non-motor Parkinson's disease symptoms?” Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (2019).  doi: 10.1007/s00406-019-00982-6.
        • Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel G, Gagliardi, et al. “Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.” Pharmacology. 1980;21:175–85. https://doi.org/10.1159/000137430
        • Elms, Lucas. Scott Shannon, Shannon Hughes, and Nicole Lewis. “Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0437
        • Hausman-Kedem, Moran et al. “Efficacy of CBD-enriched medical cannabis for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents – An observational, longitudinal study.” Brain and Development, Volume 40 , Issue 7 , 544 - 551, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.03.013
        • Libzon, S., Schleider, L. B.-L., Saban, N., Levit, L., Tamari, Y., Linder, I., … Blumkin, L. (2018). “Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders.” Journal of Child Neurology, 33(9), 565–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073818773028
        • Malfitano, Anna Maria et al. “Cannabinoids in the management of spasticity associated with  multiple sclerosis” Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment vol. 4,5 (2008): 847-53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626929/
        • McCoy, B. , Wang, L. , Zak, M. , Al‐Mehmadi, S. , Kabir, N. , Alhadid, K. , McDonald, K. , Zhang, G. , Sharma, R. , Whitney, R. , Sinopoli, K. and Snead, O. C. (2018), “A prospective open‐label trial of a CBD/THC cannabis oil in dravet syndrome.” Ann Clin Transl Neurol, 5: 1077-1088. doi:10.1002/acn3.621
        • Meldrum, B. S., Fariello, R. G., Puil, E. A., Derouaux, M. and Naquet, R. “Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol and Epilepsy in the Photosensitive Baboon, Papio papio. Epilepsia,”  (1974), 15: 255-264. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1974.tb04947.x
        • Porcari, Giulia S. et al. “Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center.” Epilepsy & Behavior , Volume 80 , 240 - 246 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.026
        • Schurman, Lesley D and Aron H Lichtman. “Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury” Frontiers in pharmacology vol. 8 69. 17 Feb. 2017, https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00069

         

        CBD oil and mental health

        CBD and Mental Health

        A systematic review of research into medical cannabis as a treatment of mental disorders published earlier this year found that researchers are looking into the applicability of CBD for treating an incredibly wide range of mental health disorders such as dementia, cannabis and opioid dependence, psychoses/schizophrenia, general social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette's disorder. 14 randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) - giving a total of 1629 participants and 4 systematic reviews (SRs) -of 11 more RCTs - were included. Across these studies. THC and CBD based medicines, given as adjunct to pharmaco- and psychotherapy, were associated with improvements of several symptoms of mental disorders, but not with remission.  

        A 2018 review “Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview” came to several notable conclusions. To quote the study at length:

        Findings to date suggest that:

        1. CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism;
        2. CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects [anxiety reduction] in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism;
        3. CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems;
        4. the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders.

        Reduction in anxiety as a result of treatment with CBD has been found in many studies.  Shannon et al recently released the results of their large retrospective case series at a psychiatric clinic, involving the clinical application of CBD for anxiety and sleep complaints as an adjunct to usual treatment. This study included monthly documentation of anxiety and sleep quality in 103 adult patients. The results?  Anxiety scores decreased within the first month in 79.2% of patients and remained decreased during the study duration. Sleep scores improved within the first month in 66.7% of patients but fluctuated over time. In this study, CBD was well tolerated in all but 3 patients. In a study last year, patients rated cannabis as highly effective overall for treating anxiety with an average score of 8.03 on a Likert scale of 0 to 10 (0 = not effective, 10 = extremely effective).  

        Several tests have been conducted specifically on anxiety prompted by social speaking. In this 2018 study, compared to placebo, pretreatment with 300 mg of CBD significantly reduced anxiety during speech and in 2011, Bergamaschi et al, found that in individuals with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech.

        CBD is able to treat a huge spectrum of mental health problems- even cannabis dependence or withdrawal. There are currently no approved medications for cannabis withdrawal, leaving people to face their addiction cold turkey.  A specialised form of THC-CBD extract, nabiximols (often sold as Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, has been shown to significantly reduce the overall severity of cannabis withdrawal relative to placebo. Additionally Nabiximols had a more limited, but still positive, therapeutic benefit on sleep disturbance, anxiety, appetite loss, physical symptoms, and restlessness.

        Research has also found CBD to have;

         

        CBD And Mental Health Further Reading:

         

        • Ahmed, Amir I A et al. “Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of multiple oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in older persons with dementia” Psychopharmacology vol. 232,14 (2015): 2587-95. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00213-015-3889-y
        • Allsop DJ, Copeland J, Lintzeris N, et al. “Nabiximols as an Agonist Replacement Therapy During Cannabis Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(3):281–291. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.3947  
        • Bergamaschi, Mateus M et al. “Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients” Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology vol. 36,6 (2011): 1219-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Fnpp.2011.6  
        • Crippa  JA, Hallak  JE, Machado-de-Sousa  JP, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report.  J Clin Pharm Ther. 2013;38(2):162-164. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12018
        • Cooper RE, Williams E, Seegobin S, Tye C, Kuntsi J, Asherson P (2017) Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 27:795–808 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.05.005
        • Elms, Lucas. Scott Shannon, Shannon Hughes, and Nicole Lewis. “Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0437
        • Kamal, Brishna S et al. “Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation-A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype” Frontiers in neuroscience vol. 12 730. 22 Oct. 2018, https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnins.2018.00730
        • Linares, Ila M., Zuardi, Antonio W., Pereira, Luis C., Queiroz, Regina H., Mechoulam, Raphael, Guimarães, Francisco S., & Crippa, José A.. (2018). “Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test”. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, October 11, 2018 https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2017-0015
        • Mandolini, G. M., et al. “Pharmacological Properties of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: a Critical Overview.” Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, vol. 27, no. 4, 2018, pp. 327–335., https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796018000239
        • Shannon, Scott et al. “Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series” Permanente journal vol. 23 (2019): 18-041. https://dx.doi.org/10.7812%2FTPP%2F18-041

         

        COMPLETE BIBLIOGRAPHY:

        • Ahmed, Amir I A et al. “Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of multiple oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in older persons with dementia” Psychopharmacology vol. 232,14 (2015): 2587-95. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00213-015-3889-y
        • Allsop DJ, Copeland J, Lintzeris N, et al. “Nabiximols as an Agonist Replacement Therapy During Cannabis Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(3):281–291. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.3947
        • Aso, E., Fernández-Dueñas, V., López-Cano, M. et al. Mol Neurobiol (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1456-3
        • Aya Abrahamov, Avraham Abrahamov, R. Mechoulam, “An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology,” Life Sciences, Volume 56, Issues 23–24,1995,Pages 2097-2102, https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(95)00194-B
        • Baguley, I. J., Nott, M. T., Howle, A. A., Simpson, G. K., Browne, S., King, A. C., et al. (2012). “Late mortality after severe traumatic brain injury in New South Wales: a multicentre study.” Med. J. Aust. 196, 40–45. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja11.10090
        • Bergamaschi, Mateus M et al. “Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients” Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology vol. 36,6 (2011): 1219-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Fnpp.2011.6  
        • Blake, Alexia, Bo Angela Wan, Leila Malek, Carlo DeAngelis, Patrick Diaz, Nicholas Lao, Edward Chow, & Shannon O’Hearn. "A selective review of medical cannabis in cancer pain management." Annals of Palliative Medicine [Online], 6.2 (2017): S215-S222. Web. 6 Feb. 2019
        • Burston JJ, Sagar DR, Shao P, Bai M, King E, et al. “Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Regulate Central Sensitization and Pain Responses Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint”  (2013) 8(11): e80440. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080440
        • CDC Wonder
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        • Crippa  JA, Hallak  JE, Machado-de-Sousa  JP, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report.  J Clin Pharm Ther. 2013;38(2):162-164. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12018
        • Crippa, J.A.S., Hallak, J.E.C., Zuardi, A.W. et al. Eur Arch “Is cannabidiol the ideal drug to treat non-motor Parkinson's disease symptoms?” Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (2019).  doi: 10.1007/s00406-019-00982-6.
        • Cooper RE, Williams E, Seegobin S, Tye C, Kuntsi J, Asherson P (2017) Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 27:795–808 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.05.005
        • Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel G, Gagliardi, et al. “Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.” Pharmacology. 1980;21:175–85.
        • Dariš B, Tancer Verboten M, Knez Željko, Ferk P. “Cannabinoids in cancer treatment: Therapeutic potential and legislation.” BJBMS [Internet]. 2 Sep.2018 [cited 6 Feb.2019];. Available from: http://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/view/3532
        • Darke, S. (2019) “Commentary on Stam et al. (2019): Drugs, death and statistics. Addiction,” https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14520.
        • Elbaz Mohamad, Nasser Mohd W., Ravi Janani, Wani Nissar A., Ahirwar Dinesh K., Zhao Helong, OghumuSteve, Satoskar Abhay R., Shilo Konstantin, Carson William E., Ganju Ramesh K.,  “Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer”, Molecular Oncology 9,(2015), doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2014.12.010.
        • Elms, Lucas. Scott Shannon, Shannon Hughes, and Nicole Lewis. “Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0437
        • Gamble Lauri-Jo, Boesch Jordyn M., Frye Christopher W., Schwark Wayne S., Mann Sabine, Wolfe Lisa, Brown Holly, Berthelsen Erin S., Wakshlag Joseph J. “Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs”, Frontiers in Veterinary Science. VOL. 5 . 2018 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffvets.2018.00165
        • Hausman-Kedem, Moran et al. “Efficacy of CBD-enriched medical cannabis for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents – An observational, longitudinal study.” Brain and Development, Volume 40 , Issue 7 , 544 - 551, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.03.013
        • Hoch, E., Niemann, D., von Keller, R. et al. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-019-00984-4
        • https://www.dravetfoundation.org/what-is-dravet-syndrome/ [accessed 06.02.19]
        • https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/letter-guidance-on-cannabis-based-products-for-medicinal-use..pdf
        • https://www.gov.uk/government/news/mhra-statement-on-products-containing-cannabidiol-cbd
        • https://www.nhs.uk/news/medication/could-cannabis-compound-soothe-arthritis-pain/
        • Kamal, Brishna S et al. “Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation-A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype” Frontiers in neuroscience vol. 12 730. 22 Oct. 2018, https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnins.2018.00730
        • Kramer, J. L. (2015), “Medical marijuana for cancer.” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65: 109-122. doi:10.3322/caac.21260
        • Libzon, S., Schleider, L. B.-L., Saban, N., Levit, L., Tamari, Y., Linder, I., … Blumkin, L. (2018). “Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders.” Journal of Child Neurology, 33(9), 565–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073818773028
        • Linares, Ila M., Zuardi, Antonio W., Pereira, Luis C., Queiroz, Regina H., Mechoulam, Raphael, Guimarães, Francisco S., & Crippa, José A.. (2018). “Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test”. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, October 11, 2018 https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2017-0015
        • Maida, Vincent et al. “Topical Medical Cannabis: A New Treatment for Wound Pain—Three Cases of Pyoderma Gangrenosum.” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management , Volume 54 , Issue 5 , 732 - 736
        • Mandolini, G. M., et al. “Pharmacological Properties of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: a Critical Overview.” Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, vol. 27, no. 4, 2018, pp. 327–335., https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796018000239
        • Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, et al. “The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000;97(17):9561-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.160105897
        • Malfitano, Anna Maria et al. “Cannabinoids in the management of spasticity associated with  multiple sclerosis” Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment vol. 4,5 (2008): 847-53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626929/
        • McCoy, B. , Wang, L. , Zak, M. , AlMehmadi, S. , Kabir, N. , Alhadid, K. , McDonald, K. , Zhang, G. , Sharma, R. , Whitney, R. , Sinopoli, K. and Snead, O. C. (2018), “A prospective openlabel trial of a CBD/THC cannabis oil in dravet syndrome.” Ann Clin Transl Neurol, 5: 1077-1088. doi:10.1002/acn3.621
        • Meldrum, B. S., Fariello, R. G., Puil, E. A., Derouaux, M. and Naquet, R. “Δ9Tetrahydrocannabinol and Epilepsy in the Photosensitive Baboon, Papio papio. Epilepsia,”  (1974), 15: 255-264. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1974.tb04947.x
        • National Center for Health Statistics
        • Porcari, Giulia S. et al. “Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center.” Epilepsy & Behavior , Volume 80 , 240 - 246 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.026
        • Schurman, Lesley D and Aron H Lichtman. “Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury” Frontiers in pharmacology vol. 8 69. 17 Feb. 2017, https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00069
        • Special Issue: Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine, Part I.”  Guest Editors: Itai Bab and Steve Alexander. British Journal of Pharmacology Volume 163, Issue 7. Pages: 1327-1562, i-xiv. August 2011
        • Shannon, Scott et al. “Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series” Permanente journal vol. 23 (2019): 18-041. https://dx.doi.org/10.7812%2FTPP%2F18-041
        • Steele, G., Arneson, T. & Zylla, D. Curr “A Comprehensive Review of Cannabis in Patients with Cancer: Availability in the USA, General Efficacy, and Safety.” Oncol Rep (2019) 21: 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-019-0757-7

        If you want to carry out more research on your own, search for relevant terms in databases such as PubMed or Web of Science. You wont need an account to use PubMed and can read full abstracts, and author information for free. PubMed will also direct you to each of the places the full article is available online, and flag which places offer the article for free.  

        Submission to PubMed and Web of Science are based on scholarly and quality criteria determined by literature review committee and based on the subject matter. Whilst it is a useful resource, Google Scholar judges submission via machine automated criteria or information submitted by publishers or individuals, meaning it often includes predatory or poor-quality journals. You can read more about these differences and why they’re important here.

         


      • Leave a comment